Week #6 – Music
Did you miss – Week #5 <– Go Here
Here is the class zoom recording from 10/12:
*A .PDF resource for how to Cite your Electronic Sources – PDF Example Here
**Final Term Paper Topic Proposal due by – 10/12 – 10/14
**Final Term Paper Bibliography due by – 10/19 – 10/26
The History of Music – Various places and spaces from the Internet:
Discussion in Class:
What are the music copyright issues?
Issues include making sure that artists get reimbursed for radio and Internet play and trying to forestall piracy of digital recordings over the Internet.
What is the career outlook for the music industry?
The music business is one of constant change. This hyper-competitive industry always has openings for musicians and those in creative fields. The field has changed due to the increasingly user-friendly and cheaper recording options available both at home and in the studio. The key to breaking into the music industry is networking and making connections among the professionals already in the field.
How has the music industry responded to illegal file-sharing services?
The Radio Industry Association of America sued services such as LimeWire to shut them down. The RIAA also has sued individuals for breaking copyright laws by sharing music files but no longer emphasizes that strategy. The industry has tried to protect CDs and music files so that songs can’t be copied and shared. The industry also has moved, belatedly, to offer online music stores that provide legal file-sharing.
Assignment: Watch the short documentary below produced by the Financial Times on how to make money in the music industry.
Questions to Answer:
Are record labels too powerful and stifling the industry?
As a music fan, would you like to see a more diverse music scene?
What does the future of the Music Industry look like in 5 years?
What does the future of the Music Industry look like in 20 years?
Please write a 150 – 300-word response and post it into the comments section below, preferably by our next class time. You will also need to comment on one of your classmates’ responses by the following week as well. Engage!
(***I strongly suggest that you generate your response(s) using a word processing application like ms word, pages or notes first, make the necessary spelling and grammatical corrections and then copy and paste your work into the comments section below***)
EARLY RECORDED MUSIC
Nickelodeons (Late 1800s)
Phono-graph – Edison (1877)
The Victrola – (1906)
Dixieland, show tunes
“Big band” and the radio days
World War II generation
Band leaders (Miller, Dorsey)
New musical genres: gospel, blues, bluegrass
Western music, singing cowboys led to country and western
Followed Southern migrants north
Followed African-American migrants to Chicago, New York
HISTORY OF ROCK AND ROLL
Roots were in blues, but also influenced by country, swing, rockabilly
Bill Haley (“Rock Around the Clock”), Elvis Presley (“That’s All Right, Mama”)
By late ’60s: Motown, English groups, heavy rock … all still known as “rock”
DJs and payola
RECORD BOOM AND POP MUSIC
1947: magnetic tape
33⅓ rpm(revolutions per minute)long-playing (LP) record for albums
45 rpm records for hit singles
Concept albums and long cuts (The Beatles)
Singer-songwriters (like Dylan) go electric
Elvis, Beatles, Rolling Stones
ROCK REVOLUTION WILL BE SEGMENTED
After 1970, distinct genres:
Album-oriented rock, Top 40, oldies, heavy metal,
adult contemporary, R&B/urban, disco, country and western
Smaller labels = musical sub-genres
Musicians evolved into producers, owners
In 1982, CDs introduced
Artists, consumers recording in digital
Low-cost digital equipment
Industry’s diminished role as gatekeepers
Bands tour and sell online
Line between consumer, producer blurring
Emergence of truly local music markets
MUSIC ON THE INTERNET
In 1999, Napster let people exchange songs via Internet
Stolen or shared?
RIAA (Recording Industry Asso. of America) filed lawsuits
Industry sued to stop copyright violations
Today, music still shared through sites like BitTorrent
iTunes created in 2003
$1.29 a song
Apple passes Walmart in record sales (2008)
iPod & MP3 music players
Subscription and cloud services
CD sales grew until 2013
Growth in digital track sales
Industry hasn’t recouped lost revenue from CDs
Record sales don’t tell whole story
Revenue growth in concerts, mobile services, global markets, publishing
NEW DIGITAL FORMATS
Music recording and computer media have converged
Laptop, phone also used as stereo
“Near” CD quality
Earbuds emphasize volume over fidelity (the louder, the better)
SINKING THE PIRATES
Music “sharing” led to digital music initiative
Apple’s FairPlay limited number of copies of downloaded song
CLOUD MUSIC SERVICES AND SOCIAL MEDIA
Music can be stored in a cloud locker
Played anywhere on any device
Thanks to high-speed wireless
Social music media
Then: Bands used MySpace to upload streaming music
Now: MySpace? What’s that?
Musicians now use other social media channels to promote music
Facebook, YouTube, Bandcamp, Twitter, SoundCloud
INDUSTRY: THE SUITS
Elements of the recording industry
Start out local, move to regional, (very few) make it big
Recording studios and record companies
Act as gatekeepers
Three big companies dominate the industry (down from four)
INDUSTRY: THE SUITS
First-week sales determine a hit
Indie labels and self-promotion
Radio, MTV not as important in promotion
YouTube, soundtracks, competition TV shows now more important
Retail store sales (Walmart, Best Buy) declining
Online purchases now dominant
Apple makes just a few cents off every iTunes purchase
Labels counting on streaming services for revenue
WHO CONTROLS THE MUSIC?
Three companies: Sony, Universal, Warner
Live Nation dominates concert ticket sales, promotions
Sharing or stealing?
Music distribution over Internet
“Poor, starving artists”?
Some bands signing with independent labels, or starting their own labels
Internet revolutionizes music promotion, marketing
Some traditional labels experimenting with online distribution
Warning labels on CDs; artists self-censoring
GLOBAL IMPACT OF POP MUSIC GENRES
Spread of rap and hip-hop
Rap as protest genre
Fear of rap as new form of imperialism, Americanization
Hip-hop becoming localized in other countries