Week #5 – Newspapers
Did you miss Week #4? <– Go here
Class recording from Zoom on 9/28/22
Some History of Newspapers:
(A simple Google search brings up many examples, what can you find and share? Here are a few various snippets from the Web)
Discussion in Class
- How many of us in our class subscribe to (or at least read) a daily newspaper? How many read a daily paper online? How does that compare with the general adult population – and with young Americans as a group? What do these demographic trends say about the future of newspapers?
- How many of us are news “junkies”? Meaning, one who checks the news several times a day. What are the most popular sources for getting news (such as the newspaper, television, radio and the Internet). Are news junkies really better informed than people who read a newspaper once a day?
- How do you get your news? Who are your favorite news bloggers, columnists, or reporters? How does the source (either the reporter or medium) affect the credibility of the story being reported?
Let us watch the first 31 minutes of the documentary “Page One” below.
Think about the following questions: (then add your response to the comments section below as our discussion board assignment for tis week)
- Many believe that journalism is an important part of our society. Without good journalism, our democracy will be in jeopardy. Do you believe in this viewpoint?
- Many newspapers are struggling. Are you willing to pay for a paper or digital subscription to support the newspaper industry? Explain why or why not.
- Many people get their news from television and the Internet. Do you think newspapers provide a different kind of journalism?
“Page One” – https://vimeo.com/203886766/3ea4a7c5b3
Please write a 150 – 300-word response and post it into the comments section below, preferably by our next class time. You will also need to comment on one of your classmates’ responses by the following week as well. Engage!
(***I strongly suggest that you generate your response(s) using a word processing application like ms word, pages or notes first, make the necessary spelling and grammatical corrections and then copy and paste your work into the comments section below***)
PRINT TO DIGITAL NEWSPAPERS
Excerpts from CHAPTER 4
**Although the textbook is not mandatory for our class, I will reference it and share excerpts and info from it – I do find that you may find it helpful as a companion, as well as a resource for your final term paper. (The book’s info is on the course syllabus page.)
KEY ISSUES OF JOURNALISM
Wrestling with commercial interests & political powers (Media conglomeration)
(Reporters without borders) <– website URL
Censorship VS. national national interest (Wikileaks, Edward Snowden)
Social responsibility and journalism ethics (Food Lion)
1690 First American newspaper, Public Occurrences, published.
1773 John Peter Zenger trial establishes truth as a defense for press against libel charges.
1783 First daily newspaper published in America, Pennsylvania Evening Post, and Daily Advertiser.
1833 First penny press, The New York Sun, begins publication.
1878 New Journalism movement originated by Joseph Pulitzer.
1972 Watergate scandal inspires new era of investigative journalism
USA Today national daily launched.
1994 The World Wide Web signals a change in the newspaper industry.
2004 Political blogs rival newspaper columns.
2009 Detroit Free Press and Detroit News begin hybrid model of three-day home delivery supplemented by online delivery.
Early newsletters read aloud to the public
Daily Courant (1702) – England’s first daily newspaper
First colonial newspaper – Publick Occurrences (1690)
American publishers criticize British rule
Zenger case (1733) – Libel defined
“True statements are not libelous”
Editorial cartoon – Ben Franklin (1754)
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
DIVERSITY IN THE PRESS
Newspapers reflected diverse political views
Native American press
Freedom’s Journal (1827 in NYC)
North Star (1847 by Frederick Douglass)
THE PENNY PRESS
1800s: better printing technology
Growing literacy, higher wages
The New York Sun: First low-cost daily mass newspaper (1833)
Had to rely on advertising and paper boys
Modern journalism started to evolve
Rise of telegraph (Morse) and Associated Press (AP)
More general-interest news
Started in in 1892
operates 243 bureaus in 120 countries
Published by more than 1700 newspapers and 5000 broadcasters
“Inverted pyramid” style
FOLLOWING THE FRONTIER
Newspapers expanded westward
Mark Twain began career as a newspaper journalist
Coverage of Civil War
Lively, sensational; crusaded against corruption
First newspaper photos by Matthew Brady
Late 1800s; rivalry between Pulitzer (NY World) and Hearst (NY Journal)
“The Yellow Kid”
Decline in journalists’ ethics
Over-the-top stories and fake interviews
Elected Congressman from New York’s 9th District
The money he bequeathed to found Columbia Journalism School in 1912
The money he bequeathed to Columbia University founded the Pulitzer Prize in 1917
Journalism grew as respectable profession
By-lines, higher salaries
Focus on social conditions
New York Times, Chicago Tribune emerged as serious newspapers
Progressive era (early 1900s), muckraking reflected society’s desire for reform
NEWSPAPERS REACH PEAK
Peaked as a mass medium between 1890 and 1920
1900: 1,967 U.S. dailies, 562 cities with competing papers
Mergers, consolidation cut number of papers
Hurt papers’ quality, diversity
World Wars I and II (CPI & OWI)
Social responsibility model
Rise of journalism schools (Columbia, CUNY, NYU, Syracuse, Stony Brook)
Codes of ethics (Society of Professional Journalists)
Competition from radio, TV
Chains own dailies, weeklies, TV stations
Rise in community papers
Citizen journalism growing
Professional, amateur journalists
Journalists watching for government mistakes, public deception
Vietnam War – Pentagon Papers
Watergate coverage led to Nixon’s resignation (Deep Throat)
News-gathering, Computer-assisted Reporting, big data
Convergence (integration of media) – get it out and fix it later
Backpack journalism – more interactive
Online and mobile news
Focus on community news
Tablets = reading more news
Digital means lower costs for publishers
“Daily Me” – customization
Twitter and blogs
THE NEWS LANDSCAPE
Mass audiences still exist for news; combination of traditional, digital outlets
National dailies: Wall Street Journal and USA Today
Local, alternative weeklies
News wire services, syndicates
TURNING THE PAGES
International, national, local
Editorial and commentary
Sports, business, lifestyles, entertainment, comics
Online sections even narrower
APPS AND WEBSITES
Most adults get news from a mobile device
They also get their news from a variety of outlets
Circulation = print and digital audience…in most cases
Monopoly paper may reflect single editorial perspective
Government has relaxed media ownership restrictions
Joint operating agreements (JOA) may preserve newspapers- DFF & DN share facilities
but keep writers separate; publishes separate weekday editions but combined weekend editions
FREEDOM OF SPEECH
Newspapers more protected than radio or TV in U.S.
Can take unpopular stands (McCarthyism)
Other countries: Journalists censored, fired, even killed (Daniel Pearl of WSJ 2002)
Ethics linked to credibility, economic success
Possible trouble areas:
RIGHT TO KNOW VS. PRIVACY
Treatment of public figures
Libel (print) v.s. Slander (say): false and defamatory
Private citizens protected
Sensational coverage (Perez Hilton)
Pay sources for information
BEING A GOOD WATCHDOG
1960s and ‘70s: Watergate, Vietnam
Blogs’ watchdog role
Driven by political passion
News elements help determine what is “news”-Timeliness, significance,
proximity, prominence, human interest, relevance, conflict, controversy
Watchdog journalism sells news
Our perception of news is changing
Editors and “gatekeeping”